Everyone probably knows what raw materials are used to make steel or pig iron since school. The new market of ferrous metallurgy is formed according to completely different principles. As a rule, earlier the metallurgical industry and raw materials extraction facilities were located not far from each other. Now everything is arranged differently. There is a kind of opposition between producers and consumers of raw materials. One of the links in this chain is junk yard toronto.
Since most of the metallurgical plants are currently ramping up their production, most of them have already mastered the basic cycle.
The iron and steel industry uses raw materials that are extracted from open cast mines where only a fifth of the material is extracted from mines.
The material that the iron and steel industry works with is found in almost every corner of the planet. It is worth noting that iron ore has different characteristics, different percentages of all kinds of elements. Because of this certain elements need enrichment or special treatment.
Steel, pig iron, ferroalloys are made from iron, chromium, manganese ore.
Types of raw materials:
– Commercial iron ore;
– Lumpy ore;
– sinter ore;
– Wet, magnetic and dry separation concentrate;
Nowadays, the cooperation between the supplier and the large producer has seriously changed. One of the reasons for this phenomenon was the change of owners of rich deposits.
It so happens that the metals are mainly produced by developed countries, while a large flow of iron ore exports comes from developing countries. Some market analysts say that in the near future about 70 percent of all world ore exports will come from Australia and Brazil.
In addition, Brazil will be in an advantageous position due to low prices. As for Russia, even despite its 17% global reserves of iron ore it won’t play a significant role on this market. The fact is that Russia’s main task is first of all to satisfy its own needs. China is considered a serious enough player in this regard, pursuing its investment policy in Africa and Asia. As for the new participants of this large commodity market, it is quite difficult for them to make their way through, because the producer began to think several steps ahead, while there should not be any disruption in supply.
Factors affecting the raw materials market in ferrous metallurgy:
– Development of deposits;
– Approval of contracts for a long period;
– Increase in production capacity;
– Influence of the political environment on the volume of imported products.
Metallurgical raw materials.
The purchase/sale of these materials depends on the geography of iron ore deposits. States with large reserves of iron ore tend to come in as exporters. These include: China, Brazil, and Australia, all of which produce more than half of the world’s ore.
America, India, Venezuela, Sweden, Italy, France, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation have huge ore reserves. Some countries with large ore reserves of their own buy it from other states as well. They are England, America, Korea, Japan and Germany.
Large mining plants were usually built where there were deposits of coking coals. Major metallurgical centers are: Donbass in Ukraine, Ruhr, and Kuzbass.
To smelt 1 ton of iron, coking coal and iron ore are needed in almost equal proportions – 1.5:1.2. The best option in this case is considered when coal, manganese and iron ore are mined side by side. There are such places in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, India, China and Australia. But this is rare, usually one thing is mined in a field. This is one of the main reasons why metallurgical plants were built close to iron ore mining sites, or on fertile coal areas.
Smelting of the metal
Human activity has produced many secondary materials (scrap metal) that can be recycled. A large number of steel mills have become involved in recycling scrap metal. Steel made from scrap materials costs less because it does not require the production of cast iron. At this point in time, about half of the world’s steel is made from its own or imported scrap.
Steel mills have begun to be built near ports, since it is more profitable to transport scrap by water.